Hylston Scientific Publishing... Changing the Course of History!

This unique hardback book is packed from cover to cover with helpful scientific data

Synopsis of the book’s contents:

In an attempt to give prospective readers a flavour of the book’s diverse contents, the various chapters, along with rough guides to their structure and subject matter, are listed in the following section. 

Section

Words

Introduction

2852

Chapter 1 A Myth is Born

5004

Chapter 2 The Man and His Time

7525

Chapter 3 Everything is Relative

9108

Chapter 4 Intriguing Electromagnetic Effects

6119

Chapter 5 The Unsuccessful Quest for the Ubiquitous Ether

8788

Chapter 6 It Was All in His Mind

9462

Chapter 7 Relative Points of View

8128

Chapter 8 Einstein’s Enigmatic Space-Time Blunders

10585

Chapter 9 The Incessant Flux of Time

7440

Chapter 10 Einstein’s Bogus Paradox

5228

Chapter 11 A Rational Solution to the Riddle of Time

9919

Chapter 12 A Brief History of Light 

6648

Chapter 13 Exploring the Invisible Electromagnetic Field

8602

Chapter 14 Looking Objectively at Light

9470

Chapter 15 The Birth of Einstein’s Quantum Dilemma

7409

Chapter 16 The Uncertain Precision of Quantum Mechanics

8202

Chapter 17 Einstein’s Final Failure and His Disruptive Legacy

7735

Chapter 18 A Logical Conclusion and Inference

7738

Total

145,962

Famous scientists featured in the book.

Introduction:

A preliminary brief account of the intellectual achievements that have been attributed to Albert Einstein by many of the world’s leading theoretical physicists. The author then explains why, in the opinion of many highly qualified experimental physicists, the extraordinary theories that were advanced by Einstein in an attempt to rationalise some mysterious four-dimensional hyperspace within which each tick of time elapses at a rate that is able to vary so as to preserve the invariant speed of light, and which are intended to justify the relationship that allegedly exists between energy, mass, the speed of light and the force of gravity, contain major inconsistencies and conjectural flaws. No attempt is made to indoctrinate the reader and, reassuringly, the author emphasises the point that the only qualification that is required in order to comprehend the physical effects that pertain to the natural phenomena that are responsible for the existence of the universe, which Einstein relentlessly attempted to explain, is an enquiring unprejudiced mind.
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Chapter 1: A Myth is Born

An insightful biographical account of Einstein’s birth and early development, which details his interest in science and mathematics and the thoughts that prompted him to embark on his theoretical quest to discover the principles that underpin the fundamental laws of nature. Details of his lackadaisical attitude towards formal education, which persisted throughout his unremarkable schooldays, plus his amorous involvement with Mileva Maric, a fellow female student who subsequently became his first wife, which exacerbated his reluctance to fully engage in the scholarly pursuits that almost culminated in total academic failure, are also chronicled and discussed.
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Chapter 2: The Man and His Time

The humiliating rejection by the scientific establishment, which angered Einstein and resulted in his undistinguished early career, is recounted along with the disparate events that gave rise to his nomadic lifestyle. A detailed account of his matrimonial trials and tribulations and the significant events that punctuated the equilibrium of his eventual academic career, plus a résumé of his contribution to theoretical physics, which involved the derivation of the special theory of relativity, the general theory of relativity and the famous equation E=mc², sets the scene for the rigorous impartial investigation and attendant scientific revelations that constitutes the main portion of this controversial myth-shattering book.
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Chapter 3: Everything is Relative

An informative journey through time that begins with the pioneering thought-provoking discoveries that were made by some of the world’s leading experimental physicists of ancient times such as Archimedes. Early Aristotlean ideas about relative motion are briefly revisited prior to a detailed explanation of the profound discoveries that were made by the likes of Galileo, Huygens, Newton, and many other equally qualified classical pioneers. Galileo’s incisive portrayal of the theory of relativity, plus Newton’s concept of absolute space and his exploratory work on motion and gravity are also discussed along with the first classical theories about energy, mass, and the mysterious force of inertia. In addition, the inextricable relationship that exists between the concepts of motion, force, acceleration, kinetic energy, momentum, and impetus is fully explained in comprehensible terms. Hence, the author’s detailed analysis of the relevant historical facts ensures that the reader will subsequently be able follow the technicalities of Einstein’s abstract train of thought that culminated in his famous relativity theories, which are based to a large extent on the innovative work that had been performed by Mach and various other contemporary theoreticians who had attempted to rationalise the consequences that allegedly result from relative motion.
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Chapter 4: Intriguing Electromagnetic Effects

A fascinating account of the preliminary investigations that were conducted by the experimental physicists who revealed the fundamental relationship that exists between electricity and magnetism. The author initially discusses many curious effects that are associated with permanent magnets and static electricity before he details numerous important discoveries that were made by the likes of Gilbert, Dufay, Franklin, Oersted, Arago and Coulomb, which prompted Michael Faraday to conduct the famous series of practical experiments that led to the development of the electric motor, the electrical transformer and the ingenious equipment that is used to transmit radio and television signals, et cetera. These experiments, which are described and illustrated in precise detail, would subsequently reveal the effect that causes an alternating electrical current to be induced in all surrounding objects that are able to conduct electricity, and the curious effect would eventually be explained by James Clerk Maxwell when he constructed a mathematical model of the electromagnetic field. In order to clarify the problem that subsequently confronted Einstein, Maxwell’s theory, which led to the production and transmission of the first electromagnetic wireless waves by Heindrich Hertz, is fully explained along with Hertz’s ingenious experiment. The photoelectric effect, which Einstein inventively explained, is also discussed along with Planck’s quantum theory upon which Einstein had based his explanation. The author then rationalises Planck’s theory and explains why it was ultimately responsible for the emergence of the enigmatic wave/particle duality hypothesis of light.
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Chapter 5: The Unsuccessful Quest for the Ubiquitous Ether

The notional existence of some ubiquitous luminiferous ether that fills universal three-dimensional space, which predominated nineteenth-century physics, is revisited along with even earlier ideas about the concept of absolute space that were proposed by the likes of Newton and his classical peers. Primitive theories about the transmission of beams of light through the desolate void of cosmic space, which eventually led to doubts about the viability of Galileo’s theory of relativity, are discussed and rationalised along with the ingenious experiments that were conducted by eminent physicists such as Armand Fizeau, Michelson and Morley, and Sir Oliver Lodge, which all failed to reveal the presence of some universal ether. The resultant intractable problems that would subsequently bewilder Einstein are diligently examined along with the initial explanations that were tentatively advanced by several creative theoreticians who, collectively, inspired him to adopt the principle of relative time. Numerous fascinating effects such as Doppler shift and interference, which are associated with the propagation of beams of light, and the crucial experiments that revealed the phenomenal speed of light are described and discussed in meticulous detail.
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Chapter 6: It Was All in His Mind

The chapter commences with a vividly detailed account of how Einstein mentally struggled to devise a solution to the problem that centred on the allegedly invariant speed of light. The conjectural tracks of eminent theoreticians such as Fitzgerald, Larmor, Mach, Poincaré, and Lorentz, which Einstein eventually chose to follow, are examined and discussed in exacting detail. The celebrated flash of inspiration that motivated Einstein to devise the ‘Special Theory of Relativity’, and the intriguing geometrical anomaly, which prompted him to challenge the logical axioms that underpin Euclidean geometry, are then described and discussed objectively. In addition to chronicling the development of special relativity theory, the effects that allegedly result from the simple equation ‘E=mc²’ when the mass under consideration is moving relative to the speed of light is discussed along with the curious chronological effects that allegedly reduce the speed at which each moment of time elapses with respect to an observer who is in motion relative to a second observer who is deemed to be stationary with reference to the invariant speed of light. The simple mathematical formula, which Einstein 'borrowed' from Lorentz, that allegedly quantifies the peculiar effect that is referred to as "time dilation" is explicitly derived and scrutinised, and the consequences of its application are examined and discussed with reference to the intriguing twin paradox.
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Chapter 7: Relative Points of View

The special theory of relativity, which Einstein devised in order to justify his assertion that the speed of light is a universal constant that it is invariant to the effects of motion, even though the observer may be moving erratically relative to the source of light, is examined in detail and objectively discussed. Numerous fascinating thought-experiments that are continually referred to by devotees of Einstein’s theory are then described in graphic detail. Observers are depicted standing alongside railway tracks holding ingenious viewing devices while trains are hurtling at constant speed relative to itinerant beams of light. More observers are located inside the trains and they are excitedly peering through the carriage windows at the chaotic outside world that is moving relentlessly relative to them. Every observer is in possession of a clock and the behaviour of each clock is being carefully monitored. Passengers on other trains are equipped with torches that are producing beams of light inside the carriages. The torchlight is not only being observed by the passengers inside the carriages, but also by the observers who are stationary relative to the train. Einstein’s assertions about the relativity of simultaneity, linear dimension, and the flux of time are obediently justified in accordance with the compelling arguments that are routinely advanced by the myriad of qualified theoretical physicists who defensively promote Einstein’s cerebrally-challenging theory. The various experiments are then modified and carefully repeated. Astonishingly, when the results are analysed they reveal a multitude of profound flaws, which Einstein’s latter-day disciples have unwittingly buried beneath a diverting facade of supportive arbitrarily chosen facts. Considering the fact that all of the ingenious thought-experiments that are described in this engrossing chapter can be performed as real experiments in the physical world, Einstein’s initial assertions have by this stage elegantly been proven to be wrong.
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Chapter 8: Einstein’s Enigmatic Space-Time Blunders

An intriguing account of how Einstein realised that the initial version of his relativity theory is seriously flawed because it does not take account of gravitational effects. The significance of what Einstein subsequently referred to as his “happiest thought” about the weightless state of a man in free fall who is plummeting to Earth from the roof of a house is discussed along with the Equivalence Principle that resulted from his inventive train of thought in which he not only attempted to rationalise the behaviour of an imaginary train careering through a region of space that is devoid of a gravitational field, but graphically depicted the impressions of physical reality that would allegedly be experienced by an observer who was unaware that he was inside a wooden chest to which a rope had been attached that was being used to drag him ever faster through intergalactic space. Additionally, Einstein's account of the notional experiences of two disorientated observers who are unable to determine the dimensions of a rapidly rotating disc in a gravitationally warped region of non-Euclidean space are analysed. Einstein's supplementary thoughts about the hypothetical consequences that result from the existence of a gravitational field, such as the creation of rapacious black holes in the warped fabric of hyperspace, the effect of gravity on transitory photons of starlight, and the accompanying effect that regulates the rate at which each moment of time is supposed to elapse at different locations within the field are rigorously examined during a detailed account of his attempt to generalise the special theory of relativity. The author then discusses the cause of gravitational red shift and logically explains why Einstein’s happiest thought was entirely wrong. He then chronicles the development of the concept of space-time along with the dilemma that subsequently confronted Einstein when he attempted to mathematically model the universe and found that he needed to modify his equations by inserting a spurious additional factor that became known as the ‘cosmological constant’. The purpose of the contrived constant was to ensure that the dimensions of the universe remain stable in agreement with those he had attributed to his notional hypersphere of four-dimensional space-time. The reason why the cosmological constant became an embarrassment to Einstein and caused him to admit that it had been a monumental blunder is fully explained. Moreover, many similar blunders that Einstein was blissfully unaware of are laid bare throughout this riveting chapter.
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Chapter 9: The Incessant Flux of Time

The confusion that arises from dictionary definitions that relate to the word ‘time’ is initially discussed prior to a rigorous examination of the diverse theories about the exact nature of time that have been proffered by numerous celebrated philosophers throughout the ages. The reasons for the development of the rudimentary devices that were intended to record and measure time are chronicled, and the various chronological instruments that were subsequently manufactured are briefly described. Einstein’s assertions about the turbulent flow of time and his mathematical interpretation of the mysterious phenomenon of duration are objectively examined along with his ideas about the concept and meaning of simultaneity. His central allegation that the speed at which an observer moves with respect to the speed of light determines the speed at which time elapses in his immediate frame of reference, which led to the derivation of the intriguing twin paradox in which a moving identical twin stays permanently young while his motionless brother grows old, is objectively examined along with some of the dismissive criticism that was justifiably levelled at Einstein's curious contention by many distinguished experimental physicists who were instinctively more grounded in physical reality.
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Chapter 10: Einstein’s Bogus Paradox

The contentious twin paradox is objectively discussed along with the numerous chronological effects, which, according to Einstein, are unavoidable consequences that result from relative motion. After describing the notional zygotic twins, one of them is given command of a spaceship and blasted from the surface of the Earth into the uncharted void of intergalactic space. The twins are equipped with powerful lamps and clocks so that they are able to continually subject Einstein’s theory to various test procedures during the period of time that elapses while the intrepid astronaut journeys alone at high speed through the cosmos. The author makes a genuine attempt to break the symmetry that initially exists between each of the disparate inertial systems that accommodate the twins by intermittently taking account of the various arguments that are advanced in support of Einstein’s theory by numerous theorists who vehemently assert that his graphic depiction of time dilation is demonstrably true. However, although many of their supportive arguments seem to be very convincing due to the fact that they describe asymmetrical effects that unavoidably arise, the symmetry that had successfully been broken stubbornly reappears when alternative explanations and additional incontrovertible facts are taken into consideration. The author then briefly reflects on the classical ideas that were proffered prior to Einstein’s relativity theory before he explains why the twin paradox is undoubtedly a product of muddled thinking. In order to prove that time dilation is a nonsensical notion, the adventurous twins are featured in numerous additional thought-experiments, which are far more complex than the simple high-speed journey that intrigued Einstein. The flight plans of the imaginary journeys through space are carefully prepared in advance to ensure that the effects of gravity, acceleration, speed, Doppler shift, et cetera will have a quantifiable effect on each of the twins. However, although the twins progressively grow older, they simultaneously age at the same rate, which is contrary to the predictions that were advanced by Einstein. Taking account of numerous valid arguments that are routinely levelled against special relativity theory by experimentalists, the author is able to demonstrate that Einstein had not only failed to devise a rational theory to account for the observed behaviour of light, but that he had also been unable to devise a satisfactory definition for the phenomenon of duration, which is generally referred to as ‘time’.
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Chapter 11: A Rational Solution to the Riddle of Time

What is time? The author concludes this fascinating chapter by supplying a logical definitive answer to this simple, yet enthralling question. Initially, the obvious physical effects that result from the motion of a material body through time are discussed. Einstein’s extraordinary theory, which asserts that the speed at which an object journeys continuously from moment to moment is able to vary, is then impartially reviewed. Exotic ‘wormholes’ in the fabric of space are described along with the intense gravitational effects that allegedly cause the severe warping of the spatial fabric, which facilitates their notional existence. Various arguments that are advanced by many academically qualified theorists in support of extraordinary theories that legitimise the possibility of travelling through a warp in the fabric of space into the dim and distant past are included in the discussion. An amusing incident based on a strange theory about an impending reversal in the direction in which time is alleged to flow, which was advanced by the acclaimed British theoretical physicist Stephen W. Hawking before he was forced to concede that his basic premise was wrong, is also discussed along with an ingenious thought-experiment in which a notional time traveller journeys backwards through time. The theoretical exercise reveals many insurmountable physical barriers that prevent material objects from travelling retrogressively through an ocean of time. Gravitational red shift and its effect on light are discussed along with the accompanying effect that allegedly modifies the speed at which time is purported to elapse at disparate locations in space. An additional argument that is continually advanced by many leading theorists, including Stephen Hawking, which asserts that an intense gravitational field would modify the length of a message if it were broadcast in the proximity of a black hole in the form of an electromagnetic radio signal, is considered in exacting detail. The author then logically demonstrates that the compelling argument is fatally flawed due to the fact that a variation in the flux of time is not responsible for the notional gravitational effect. The hypothetical light clock that is supposed to validate the phenomenon of time dilation is also critically examined in order to highlight several unacceptable defects that blight the theory of the inconstancy and relativity of units of time. In addition, several practical experiments involving extremely accurate atomic clocks are described and discussed. After scrupulously re-examining the experimental results, the author proffers logical practical explanations along with an objective definition for the concept of 'time'; the equivocal phenomenon that bewildered the mathematical mind of Einstein.
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Chapter 12: A Brief History of Light

The author initially examines the merits of the various theories that have been advanced in an attempt to describe the exact nature of light and then details numerous ingenious experiments that have been performed throughout the ages by many eminent physicists who have endeavoured to resolve what is now regarded as an intractable problem. Whether a beam of light consists of a diverging swarm of moving particles or a continuous stream of electromagnetic waves was one of the major conundrums that Einstein was unable to resolve, and the reason for his bemused state of mind soon becomes evident. The classical theories that were proposed by Descartes, Gassendi, Galileo, Huygens, Newton, and many other theorists are discussed throughout this fascinating chapter. Newton’s famous experiments that revealed the heterogeneous microstructure of light are described, as are the classic experiments that were performed by Grimaldi, Young, Foucault, Faraday, Zeeman, and various other equally competent experimental physicists. Hence, the ingenious experiments that revealed the precise speed of light, and which led to the discovery of interference, polarisation, the Doppler, Faraday and Zeeman effects, et cetera are clearly described. Maxwell’s field theory that led to the discovery of electromagnetic waves is discussed along with the reason why he refused to abandon the classical theory that involved an invisible ether, which facilitated their propagation, despite the negative results that had been obtained from the famous series of experiments that had been conducted by the likes of Fizeau, Michelson and Morley, and Lodge. Planck’s alternative quantum theory of electromagnetic radiation, which re-energised the unresolved debate about the precise conformation of a beam of light, is also rationally explained.
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Chapter 13: Exploring the Invisible Electromagnetic Field

The physical nature and properties of electrostatic and magnetic fields are analysed objectively during the introduction to this engrossing chapter that exposes many more profound flaws in Einstein’s theory about the consequences of motion with respect to the speed of light. The author highlights the inability of both Planck, who devised quantum theory, and Einstein to construct a satisfactory model of the field that exists between an emitter of electromagnetic waves and some distant receiver, despite the profound discoveries relating to the properties of these fields that had been made by Coulomb and many other experimental physicists during the eighteenth-century. The creation of an electrostatic field between the plates of an electrical capacitor is included in the discussion in order to explain the revolutionary theory that resulted from Maxwell’s analysis of Faraday’s electromagnetic induction experiments. After describing the function of a capacitor's separate components, the author explains how and why this simple device is able to store electric charges of opposite polarity before he analyses the complex reaction that accompanies the virtually instantaneous electrical discharge that was discovered by Kelvin. He then discusses the alternating electromagnetic waves, which Maxwell had predicted would propagate through space as a consequence of the inconstant electrical activity. The physical processes that facilitate the generation, transmission and reception of a radio signal are then examined and a rational depiction of the microstructure of electromagnetic waves is proffered in order to justify the physical existence of the autonomous quanta of energy that are able to travel effortlessly through space in the form of waves between the point of emission and the point of absorption. The author then examines the cosmic microwave background radiation, which is alleged to be the fossilised remnants of the primordial electromagnetic field that began propagating through the universe shortly after the notional big bang. After revealing yet more anomalies in Einstein’s theory, he attributes the contradictions in his explanation of motion relative to an invisible field of light to the fact that Einstein chose to bury his head in the sand of abstract mathematics rather than acknowledge the physical substantiality of the electromagnetic field that pervades the universe.
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Chapter 14: Looking Objectively at Light

Conflicting theories about the nature of light are examined along with the diverse explanations that are supposed to account for its strange behaviour. The author discusses refraction, dispersion, diffraction, reflection, transmission, and absorption during an examination of the various effects that are responsible for the existence of the exotic rainbow, the flickering image of a twinkling star, the apparent colour of a clear blue sky, the tantalising vision of the illusory mirage, and the curious bend in the image of an object that appears at the surface of a liquid when the object is partially submerged. The experimental results that were obtained by Michelson and Morley are then discussed before the author logically explains why the effect, which they anticipated would result from interference, failed to reveal itself during the legendary experiment, which he convincingly argues was a badly designed pointless exercise. He justifiably points out that the negative results do not prove that light behaves in compliance with the strange theories that were subsequently proposed by the likes of Fitzgerald, Lorentz, and Einstein. Moreover, he examines rational alternative explanations for the negative experimental results that relativists repeatedly cite as compelling evidence that supports Einstein's invariance theory. The author reinforces his contention that Einstein’s theory is false by analysing the behaviour of a beam of light that is propagating through space with respect to a stationary observer and the passengers who are travelling on a train that is moving relative to the observer. The two opposing theories that were proposed by Newton and Einstein while attempting to predict the effect that gravity will have on a beam of light are then discussed at length. Yet another intriguing theory about the consequences that should arise from motion relative to light that was devised at the beginning of the eighteenth-century by the eminent British astronomer James Bradley, and is based on the assumption that a beam of light can be likened to a moving stream of air molecules that constitute an invisible wind, is discussed before a logical rebuttal of Bradley’s theory is advanced along with a more plausible explanation for the aberration of starlight. The production of a television picture by bombarding atoms with electrons in a cathode ray tube is also briefly discussed in order to explain the generation and disorderly structure of a beam of light prior to a detailed account of the method that is employed to generate an orderly laser beam. The author competently demystifies the residual theories that relate to the physical relationship that exists between energy, matter, and light and then concludes the final section of this absorbing chapter by reflecting on the laws that govern the quantum world, which Einstein would vigorously oppose.
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Chapter 15: The Birth of Einstein’s Quantum Dilemma

The reason why Einstein used Planck’s quantum theory to explain the photoelectric effect is discussed during the introduction to this informative chapter that describes the development of modern atomic theory. Bohr’s ingenious quantum modification to the classical model of the atom, which he proposed in an attempt to account for the unique line spectra that characterise the light that the atoms of the disparate elements are able to emit, is explained in order to complement Einstein’s quantum explanation. The earliest versions of atomic theory that were devised by ancient Greek philosophers are then summarised prior to a detailed account of the first coherent theories that were proposed by the likes of Dalton in the nineteenth-century. The electrical properties of the atom, plus a detailed explanation of ionisation and the fascinating experiments that Faraday conducted, which quantitatively revealed the fundamental relationship that exists between an electrical current and the role that electrons play in complex chemical reactions are examined. The discoveries that were made by Becquerel, which prompted the Curie’s to investigate the complex phenomena of radioactivity and atomic decay, are described in exacting detail. Additionally, Rutherford’s novel experimental procedure in which he used subatomic particles to probe the structure of the atom is described and his conclusion is discussed and rationalised. During the concluding section of this chapter, an elaborate, yet ineffectual experiment, which Einstein helped to conduct in an attempt to detect the angular momenta of orbiting electrons, is discussed along with the unavoidable side-effects that invalidated the theory. The reason why the theories that were proposed by Einstein and Bohr, in which electrons continually circle the atomic nucleus in precisely defined orbits, began to falter soon becomes abundantly clear.
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Chapter 16: The Uncertain Precision of Quantum Mechanics

A revolutionary depiction of the electron that resulted in the contradictory concept of wave/particle duality is described in the introduction to this chapter, and the reason why Einstein was cautiously enthusiastic about the extraordinary idea is explained. The author then discusses the implications of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and explains why physicists are so intrigued by the uncertain behaviour of subatomic particles. A detailed account of the various experiments that were conducted by the likes of Compton, which revealed the effect that electromagnetic radiation has on the behaviour of electrons, is also included in the quantum debate. The reason why Einstein was reluctant to become involved in the development of the new science of quantum mechanics is objectively examined before the author explains why the dispute, which resulted from his rejection of the inherent degree of uncertainty that is associated with the logical mathematical procedure, was pointless. The precision that is associated with Newtonian mechanics is then compared to the uncertain precision that results from calculations that predict the collective behaviour of zillions of subatomic reactions in processes such as radioactive decay. The reason for the transition from the mathematical concept of matrix mechanics to wave mechanics is then explained along with the various experiments that were conducted by physicists such as Davisson and Germer, which revealed the physical existence of electron waves. Einstein’s enthusiastic collaboration with Bose in the development of Bose’s mathematical model of a quantum field is discussed in connection with the hypothetical boson messenger particles that resulted from their mathematical endeavours. The author also discusses similar theoretical contrivances such as Pauli’s Exclusion Principle that allegedly governs the behaviour of subatomic particles. The final section of this engrossing chapter details the various exotic subatomic particles that have been observed in the form of the debris that results when high-velocity particles are made to collide during the course of ingenious experiments that are conducted inside enormous particle accelerators. The prediction and subsequent discovery of antiparticles, and the development of the theory of quarks held together by massless gluons, which now underpins the standard model of particle physics, are also discussed in order to reveal the complexities of the subatomic world that Einstein had been attempting to rationalise.
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Chapter 17: Einstein’s Final Failure and His Disruptive Legacy

The author initially discusses the cause of the irreconcilable dispute that engulfed the donnish world of theoretical physics in1927 when the leading proponents of the revolutionary theory of quantum mechanics were attending a prestigious conference in Belgium. The reason why Einstein refused to become embroiled in the undignified argument that ensued is examined along with the argumentative debate that he subsequently entered into with Niels Bohr, the eminent quantum pioneer. The concepts of uncertainty and probability are then discussed in order to explain why the degree of uncertainty concerning predictions about the consequences of complex subatomic reactions, such as quantum tunnelling, varies, and why the amount by which it varies is quantifiable. The debatable rationale that underpinned Einstein’s persistent attempt to construct a theory that would unify the forces of nature is analysed, and his prediction about the existence of exotic gravitational waves is objectively scrutinised. The reason why Einstein failed to progress his grandiose idea about the existence of a complex unified field, which he assumed must equate to some fundamental integrated framework that constrains the energy that constitutes the disparate material and ethereal components of the universe, soon becomes clear. During the penultimate section of this chapter, which sums up Einstein’s contribution to what theorists now refer to as "the theory of everything", the author explains that although his failure was absolute, Einstein succeeded in bequeathing a legacy of confusion that has intellectually intimidated his like-minded successors. Therefore, although theoretical physics is now firmly in the mental grip of brilliant mathematicians who are attempting to resolve the same problems that confronted Einstein, there are several logical reasons why their tireless intellectual endeavours are destined to the same ignominious fate that befell their mentor. The author finally cautions that Einstein’s cerebric legacy will continue to subvert the progress of theoretical physics until theoreticians objectively review his ambiguous contentions and dispassionately reflect on more logical explanations for natural phenomena that are preferred by experimentalists, some of which are featured amongst the contents of this fascinating book.
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Chapter 18: A Logical Conclusion and Inference

The author rationally sums up the various reasons why Einstein failed to realise that the basic assumptions on which he based his extraordinary relativity theories are undoubtedly wrong. He convincingly argues that Einstein had merely been playing an ingenious mathematical game and cites numerous instances, amongst which he includes the geometrically configured explanation that Einstein had proffered to account for the precession of the perihelion in the orbit of Mercury, as examples of how he chose to adopt some very questionable rules of play. Reassuringly, a more logical explanation for the observed precession is detailed and examined. In a similar manner, the author discusses the implications of the equation E=mc² and explains that there are several valid reasons why its elegant simplicity can be criticised if one takes account of the fact that Einstein’s central premise has yet to be proven. Many practical experiments that could easily be performed by a team of competent experimental physicists in order to test Einstein’s theories are then described before the author reminds the reader that Einstein had once cautiously admitted: “No amount of experimentation can ever prove me right; a single experiment can prove me wrong.” Additionally, Einstein’s withering response to a justifiable accusation of plagiarism and his cryptic formula for personal success, which he expressed in the form of a simple equation, are quoted and discussed to reinforce the author’s contention that a novel scientific theory must never be assumed to be true just because it has been accepted by a phalanx of lettered academics. He concludes this final chapter by reminding the reader that the ultimate goal of physical science is the production of logical verifiable explanations for the existence of the diverse manifestations of energy that are involved in countless physical processes and various material bodies that collectively constitute the boundless universe. Therefore, every scientific theory, regardless of the qualifications of its creator, should be continually subjected to rigorous tests that are designed to falsify the basic premise upon which it relies because an elegant, yet erroneous theory equates to little more than an ingenious distraction that subverts mankind's altruistic quest for some ultimate truth.
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Not only are the intriguing theories that were proposed by Albert Einstein discussed within the informative chapters of ‘What Einstein Didn’t Know About Time’, but so are many of the fascinating contributions that the following 147 famous individuals have made to the totality of human knowledge.

Max Abraham - André Marie Ampère - Dominique Arago - Archimedes - Aristotle - Abhay Ashtekar - Saint Augustine - Henri Antoine Becquerel - Michaelangelo BessoNiels Henrick David Bohr - Janos Bolyai - Max Born - Rudjer Boscovich - Satyendra Nath Bose - James Bradley - Louis Victor de Broglie - Girolamo Cardano - Giovanni Domenico Cassini – Henry Cavendish - Cleomedes of Alexandria - Arthur Holly Compton - Nicholaus Copernicus - Charles Augustin Coulomb - William Crookes - Marie Curie - Pierre Curie - John Dalton - Clinton Davisson - Democritus - Demosthenes - René Descartes – Robert Henry Dicke - Herbert Dingle - Paul Adrien Dirac – Christian Johann Doppler - Charles Dufay – Frank Watson Dyson - Arthur Stanley Eddington - Euclid - Michael Faraday - Enrico Fermi - Erwin Finlay-Freundlich - Armand Hippolyte Louis Fizeau – Thomas Charles Van Flandern - George Francis Fitzgerald - Jean Bernard Léon Foucault - Benjamin Franklin - Augustin Jean Fresnel - Galileo Galilei - Pierre Gassendi - Karl Friedrich Gauss – Hans Wilhelm Geiger - Murray Gell-Mann - Lester Germer - William Gilbert - Francesco Maria Grimaldi - Marcel Grossman - Conrad Habicht - Joe C. Hafele - Wilhelm Ludwig Franz Hallwachs - Wander Johannes de Haas - Friedrich Hasenöhrl - Lene Hau - Stephen William Hawking – Oliver Heaviside -Werner Carl Heisenberg - Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz - Joseph Henry - Heinrich Hertz - Robert Hooke - Edwin Powell Hubble - Christiaan Huygens - Samuel Johnson - James Joyce - Theodor Eduard Kaluza - Immanual Kant - Walter Kaufmann - Richard E. Keating - Lord Kelvin, William Thomson - Johannes Keplar - Oskar Klein - Pierre-Simon de Laplace – Joseph Larmor - Peter Nikolaievich Lebedev - Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz - Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard - Leucippus - Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky - Oliver Joseph Lodge - Hendrik Antoon Lorentz - Elsa Löwenthal - Lucretius - Ernst Wilhelm Mach - Etienne Malus - Mileva Maric - Christopher Marlowe - James Clerk Maxwell - Albert Abraham Michelson - John Michell - Hermann Minkowski - Edward W. Morley - Walter Nernst - Isaac Newton - Hans Christian Oersted - Wolfgang Pauli - Charles Sanders Peirce - Roger Penrose – Arno Allan Penzias - Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck - Jules Henri Poincaré - Ptolemy - Pythagoras - Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann - Olaus Christensen Römer - Nathen Rosen - Ernest Rutherford – Georges Sagnac- Josef Sauter - Erwin Schrödinger - George Bernard Shaw - Ludwig Silberstein – Willem de Sitter – Johann George von Soldner - Maurice Solovine - Johannes Stark - George Gabriel Stokes - George Johnstone Stoney - John William Strutt - Max Talmud - Thales of Miletus – George Paget Thomson - John Joseph Thomson - John Tyndall - Heinrich Weber - Herbert George Wells – O. E. Westin - John Archibald Wheeler - William Whewell - Edmund Taylor Whittaker – Ludwig Christian Wiener - Charles Thompson Rees Wilson – Robert Woodrow Wilson -  Jost Winteler - Thomas Young - Pieter Zeeman - Zeno of Elea - George Zweig.
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